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Comfrey Research
Symphytum


Historical documents, botanical literature, biomedical literature,
modern research papers, government resources, databases,
academic dissertations, maps, articles, books, magazines
in many languages from many countries.

Botanists and Comfrey

Botanical research from these and other botanists:

Bauhin 1596 & 1623, Parkinson 1640, Ray 1669 & 1686.

Tournefort 1700, Linnaeus 1753, Gaertner 1788, Schreber 1789, Jussieu 1789, Schkuhr 1791, Lamarck 1791, Sowerby 1791, Sibthorp 1794, Schmidt 1794, Lepechin 1797, Willdenow 1799.

Bieberstein 1808, Lehmann 1818, Schimper 1835, G. Don 1838, Fries 1839, De Candolle 1846, Ledebour 1847, Steven 1851, Bentham 1858, Kerner 1863, Schur 1866, Schultz 1875, Boissier 1879, Nyman 1881 & 1884, Kuntze 1887.

Kuznetsov 1910, Bucknall 1912 & 1913, Tutin 1952, Komarov 1953, Popov 1953, Wade 1958, Perring 1962, Gadella and Kliphuis 1967, Wickens 1969, Pawlowski 1972, Perring 1975, Stearn 1985 & 1986, Sandbrink 1990.

Slavik 2000, Elci/Hilger/Erik 2008, Hacioglu and Erik 2011, Gviniashvili 2013.

Research from Around the World

References are about these countries and more:

Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia / Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Repubic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iraq, Iran (Persia), Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexcio, Moldova, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Scotland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan, Wales, previous Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Examples of Sources of Information
1493 to 1890


Paracelsus, Swiss physician, 1493-1541 AD. Translation: ’Paracelsus: Samtliche Werke’ {Complete Works} edited by Karl Sudhoff, Wilhelm Matthiessen and Kurt Goldammer; Munich and Berlin, Germany, 1922-1933. 14 volumes. In German.

‘Herbarius zu Teutsch und Von Aller Hand Kreuttern’ published by Peter Schoffer, Mainz, Germany, 1485. Sometimes called ‘Ortus Sanitatis’, ‘Hortus Sanitatis’, ‘Smaller Ortus’, ‘German Herbarius’ or ‘Gart der Gesundheit’ (Garden of Health). With 379 illustrations. Copied the same year by Johann Schonsperger, Augspurg, Germany with other editions.

‘The Tudor Pattern Book’ from England, perhaps East Anglia. Drawn around 1520-1530. Made of parchment. Found in ‘Catalogue of Western Medieval Manuscripts in Oxford Libraries’ with ‘Shelfmark: Bodleian Library MS. Ashmole 1504’, University of Oxford, Oxford, England. Names of species are written in Early English. Fol. 007v: “Cumfrey and Daisy, Cauldrons, powter plate, yellow dish”.

‘Herbarum Vivae Eicones (Icones) ad Naturae Imitationem, summa cum diligentia & artificio effigiatae’ {Living Portraits of Plants}, Volume 1 by Otto Brunfels (German botanist), published in Argentorati (Strasbourg), France, 1530. Symphytum pages 75 to 78. In Latin, 3 volumes (1530 to 1536) with illustrations by Hans Weiditz, German artist.

‘De Natura Stirpium’ {Nature Plants}, 3 Volumes, by Jean Ruel, physician, Paris, France, 1536-1537. In Latin.

‘Vasvarmegye Novenyfoldrajza es Floraja: Geographia atque Enumeratio Plantarum Comitatus Castferrei in Hungaria’ {Plant Geography and Flora in Vas County, Hungary} by Vincze von Borbas, Veszto, Hungary, 1887.

‘Planta Orientali-Rossicae, Volume 10’ by Dr. Otto Kuntze, 1887. Published in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Written in German.

’Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien.’ by Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Wien., Vienna, Austria, Volume 38, 1888. Symphytum wettsteinii by G. Sennholz, pages 69-70 of Sitzungsberichte {Meeting Reports}. In German.

‘Flora Sicula, o Descrizione delle Piante Vascolari Spontanee o Indigenate in Sicilia’, 3 Volumes, by Pojero M. Lojacono. Palermo, Sicily, Italy, 1888-1909.

‘Experiment Station Record, Volume 1, September 1889- July 1890’, United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington, D.C., 1889-1890.

New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 22 New Series: Pig Feeding Experiments Without Milk, Geneva, New York, August 1890. Includes ‘Feeding Prickly Comfrey’.

More Examples of Sources of Information
1927 to 2008


‘Flora of the Vicinities of Poltava Town with Full List of the Wild Vegetation’ {Illichevsky S.O. Flora Okolyts Poltavy z Povnym Spyskom Dykoyi Roslynnosti}, Poltava, Ukraine: Poltavapoligraf, page 32, 1927. In Ukrainian.

‘The Herbal of Otto Brunfels’ by T.A. Sprague, B.Sc., F.L.S.; Linnean Society’s Journal: Botany, London, England, Volume XLVIII, December 1928, pages 80 to 124.

’Die Monotypischen und Artenarmen Gattungen der Anchuseae {Caryolopha, Brunnera, Hormuzakia, Gastrocotyle, Phyllocara, Trachystemon, Procopiania und Borago}’ by M. Gusuleac; Buletinul Facultatii de Stiinte din Cernauti, Romania, Volume 2, pages 394-461, 1928.

‘Ueber die Begriffe Komparium, Kommiskuum und Konvivium und Ueber die Entstehungsweise der Konvivien’ {On the Concepts of the Comparium, the Commiscuum and the Convivium and on the Origin of the Convivia} by B.H. Danser, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Genetica: An International Journal of Genetics and Evolution, Volume 11, Issue 5, pages 399-450, September 1929.

‘Bemerkungen uber einige orientalische Pflanzenarten LXXXIX. Uber Symphytum uliginosum Kern.’ (Remarks about some Oriental Plant Species LXXXIX. About Symphytum uliginosum Kern.) by A. Von Degen, Magyar Botanikai Lapok (Hungarian Botanical Pages), Volume 29, pages 144-148, 1930.

‘Ungarische Botanische Blaetter’ = ‘Magyar Botanikai Lapok’, Budapest, Hungary, Volume 29, 1930. Includes article: ‘Megjegyzesek Nehany Keleti Novenyfajrol’ by Dr. A.V. Degen, Budapest, Hungary, pages 144-148. {Volumes 1 to 33, 1902-1934.}

‘Accumulation of Glutamine by Suspension Cultures of Symphytum Officinale’ by Haruo Tanaka, Yozo Machida, Hozumi Tanaka, Noboru Mukai and Masanaru Misawa, Tokyo Research Laboratory, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd., Machida-shi, Tokyo, Japan; Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, Volume 38, No. 5, pages 987-992, (1974).

‘Action of Some Proteic and Carbohydrate Components of Symphytum Officinale upon Normal and Neoplastic Cells’ by A. Olinescu, G. Manda, M. Neagu, S. Hristescu and C. Dasanu, Cantacuzino Institute, Bucharest, Romania; Roumanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology, Volume 52, No. 2, pages 73-80, (April-June 1993).

‘Acute Hepatitis After Ingestion of Herbs’ by J.A. Shad, C.G. Chinn and O.S. Brann, Department of Internal Medicine, Naval Medical Center, San Diego, California; Southern Medical Journal, Birmingham, Alabama, Volume 92, No. 11, pages 1095-1097, (November 1999).

‘Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Mixed Agrocenosis of Fodder Plants’ by A. Tamakhina, Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian Academy, Nal’chik, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russia; Mezhdunarodnyi Sel’skohozyaistvennyi Zhurnal (International Agricultural Journal), No. 1, pages 55-57, (2008).

Need Help Finding Information About Comfrey?

Contact us about finding literature about Symphytum. Many available as pdfs. Some can not be found on the internet but we have access to them.

In many languages from BC to current times.


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