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Comfrey Book: Volume 1
Botany and History of Comfrey
Garden Uses of Comfrey

440 pages, 8.5" x 11", Paperback
Published 2022

Table of Contents (medium length version)













PART A: BOTANY OF COMFREY...p. 10

Chapter 1: Taxonomy & Nomenclature of Comfrey...p. 11
Classification of Life (Taxonomy of Comfrey)
Carl Linnaeus, Father of Taxonomy
Taxonomic Classifications Below Genus
Two Basic Types of Taxonomy (Rank versus Group)
Methods of Determining Proper Taxonomic Relationships
Plant Nomenclature (Naming)
Botanical Terminology and Finding Botanical Literature
Organizations Involved in Naming/Cataloging Species

Chapter 2: Borage Family, Symphytum Genus...p. 23
Boraginaceae Family (Borage)
Symphytum (Comfrey) Genus
Early Botanical History of Symphytum (Botanists: 1623 to 1799)
Later Botanical History of Symphytum (Botanists: 1808 to 2008)

Chapter 3: Symphytum Species...p. 38
Comfrey Names (Ancient, Informal & Foreign Language)
Accepted Latin Names of Symphytum Species
List of All Symphytum Species
Symphytum Species at Herbariums (Dried)
Symphytum Species at Botanic Gardens (Living)
Symphytum Species at Gene Banks (Living)

Chapter 4: Symphytum Species Classifications...p. 53
Overview of Symphytum Species Classifications: 1596 to 2019
Methods of Surveying and Collecting Symphytum in Field
Methods of Authentication of Comfrey Species

Chapter 5: Symphytum Genus Description...p. 83
Symphytum Genus Description
Comfrey Leaf Description
Comfrey Root Description
Comfrey Flower
Comfrey Seed (Fruit)
Comfrey Seedling

Chapter 6: Symphytum Species Overview...p. 110
Comfrey Chromosomes Overview
Hybrids, Hybrid Swarms, Introgression
Overview of Crossbreeding Among Symphytum Species
Overview of Distribution of Symphytum Species
Overview Comparison of Symphytum Species Plus Keys

Chapter 7: Details about Symphytum Species: Asperum or Asperrimum (Prickly Comfrey)...p. 135
Current Botanical Nomenclature
Subspecies and Varieties of S. asperum
History Prickly Comfrey in Great Britain, Ireland and USA
Distribution (Geographic Locations)
Description
Chromosomes

Chapter 8: Details about Symphytum Species: Officinale (Common Comfrey)....p. 150
Current Botanical Nomenclature
S. officinale Subspecies and Varieties
Distribution (Geographic Locations)
Description
Flowers and Pollination
More about Roots
Chromosomes
S. officinale Breeding

Chapter 9: Details about Symphytum Species: No Asperum, No Officinale, No Hybrids....p. 182
anatolicum, angustifolium, armeniacum, bohemicum, bornmuelleri, brachycalyx, bulbosum, bullatum, caucasicum, circinale, coccineum, cordatum, creticum, cycladense, davisii, floribundum, Goldsmith, grandiflorum, gussonei, hajastanum, Hidcote, ibericum, kurdicum, leonhardtianum, mediterraneum, naxicola, nodosum, norfolk, norvicense, orientale, ottomanum, palaestinum, patens, peregrinum, podcumicum, pseudobulbosum, rubrum, savvalense, sepulcrale, sylvaticum, tanaicense, tauricum, tuberosum, uliginosum, uplandicum, zeyheri.

Chapter 10: Details about Symphytum Species Hybrid: Russian Comfrey....p. 263
Current Botanical Nomenclature
Hybrid Origin and Classification (peregrinum, uplandicum)
Russian Comfrey Distribution (Locations)
Description
Determining Hybrid Character: Chromosomes, Chemicals
Flowers
Strains (Cultivars) of Russian Comfrey
Turner Strain (Bocking No. 1, 16, 17)
Stephenson Strain (Bocking No. 2, 14)
Webster Strain (Bocking No. 3-11, Bocking Mixture)
Other Russian Comfrey Cultivars and Varieties
Russian Comfrey Chromosomes

Chapter 11: Details about Symphytum Species Hybrids: Not Russian Comfrey....p. 300
Goldsmith
Hidcote Blue and Pink
Hybrids with S. officinale
Other Hybrids


PART B: HISTORY OF COMFREY

Chapter 12: Prehistory, Ancient Times, Middle Ages and Comfrey....p. 309
History of the Word ‘Comfrey’
Prehistory of Comfrey
400 BC - 400 AD: Ancient Times
Herodotus, 484-425 BC, Greek
Nicander of Colophon, 200-101 BC, Greek
Pliny the Elder, 23-79 AD, Roman
Pedanius Dioscorides, 40-90 AD, Greek
Galen of Pergamon, 130-200 AD, Greek
401 - 1400 AD: Middle Ages
Johnson Papyrus, early 400s AD, Greek
Aetios or Aetius, 500 AD, Greek
Aegineta, 625-690 AD, Greek
Anglo-Saxon Leech Books, 900-1000+ AD
Christian Monasteries, 340-1400 AD, Europe
Hildegard of Bingen, 1098-1179 AD, German
Gilbert Anglicus, 1230-1250 AD, English

Chapter 13: Renaissance & Comfrey 1400-1600s....p. 322
Overview of Renaissance
1401 - 1600: Early Renaissance
Paracelsus, 1493-1541, Swiss
Otto Brunfels, 1488-1534, German
Jean Ruel, 1536, ‘De Natura Stirpium’, French
Jean Fernel,1542, ‘Naturali Parte Medicinae’, French
Hieronymus Bock 1552 ‘De Stirpium’, German
William Turner, 1551-1568, ‘A New Herball’, English
Rembert Dodoens, 1578, ‘A New Herball’, Flemish
John Gerard 1597 ‘Herball or General Historie’,English
1600s: Renaissance
John Parkinson 1640 ‘Theatrum Botanicum’, English
North American Colonists, 1649
Johann Bauhin, 1651, ‘Historia Plantarum’, Swiss
Nicholas Culpeper 1653 ‘Complete Herbal’, English

Chapter 14: Age of Enlightenment and Comfrey 1700s....p. 335
Joseph Tournefort 1700 French botanist, defined genus
William Salmon 1710 ‘Botanologia, The English Herbal’
Carl Linnaeus 1753 ‘Species Plantarum’, Swedish
J. Busch 1771 sent Symphytum from Russia to England
I. Lepechin 1774-1802, described plant species, Russian
W. Withering 1787 ’Systematic Arrangement British Plants’
Thomas Christy 1790 ‘Forage Plants’, English
James Sowerby 1791-1814, ‘English Botany’ books
William Woodville 1794 ‘Medical Botany’, English

Chapter 15: Age of Revolutions and Comfrey 1800s....p. 341
William Curtis, early 1800s, 7 Symphytums in England
Prickly Comfrey becomes popular in England
Many writings in Great Britain and USA about Comfrey
Thomas Christy promotes Prickly and Russian Comfrey
Henry Doubleday, late 1800s, developed Russian Comfrey

Chapter 16: The 1900s and Comfrey....p. 355
Webster Nurseries 1900 grows Russian Comfrey
Vernon Stephenson 1942 grows Russian Comfrey
Lawrence Hills 1948 grows Russian Comfrey
Peggy Greer 1952 grows Russian Comfrey
Newman Turner 1952 Comfrey as veterinary medicine
Russian Comfrey goes to Canada and Africa 1953
Lawrence Hills 1953 wrote book ‘Russian Comfrey’
Henry Doubleday Research Association founded 1954
Russian Comfrey goes to Japan and Australia late 1950s
Lawrence Hills 1975 wrote book ‘Comfrey Report’
Lawrence Hills 1976 ‘Comfrey: Fodder, Food, Remedy’





PART C: GARDEN USES AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE

Chapter 17: Garden Uses of Comfrey: Compost, Fertilizer, Potting Mix....p. 369
Comfrey Roots Break Up Hard Soil
Comfrey As Mulch
Grow-It-Yourself Fertilizer
Minerals in Comfrey Overview
Comfrey as Liquid Manure (Liquid Fertilizer)
Making Compost with Comfrey
Potting Mixture with Leaf Mold

Chapter 18: Garden Uses of Comfrey: Growing Vegetables & Fruit with Comfrey Fertilizer....p. 383
Growing Potatoes with Comfrey as Fertilizer
Growing Vegetables with Comfrey as Fertilizer
Cabbage, Bean/Pea, Fruit, Lettuce, Onion, Potato
Fermented Extracts from Comfrey Help Plants Grow
Tomatoes, Onions, Garlic and Comfrey
Fruit and Comfrey (Small Plant, Bush, Tree)
Protects Plants from Insects, Slugs and Snails
Comfrey as Plant Antifungal
Permaculture and Forest Gardens
Dynamic Accumulator and Soil Improver
Aquaponic Food Production
Beneficial Insects and Comfrey

Chapter 19: Nutritional Value of Comfrey....p. 407
Dry Matter
Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium (NPK)
Protein (Crude Protein)
Fiber (Crude Fiber)
Minerals (Ash)
Vitamins in Comfrey
Vitamin B12
Mucilage in Comfrey
Fat, Protein, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Ash, Miscellaneous
Other Constituents including Phenolic Acids
Digestibility of Comfrey Leaf
Energy: Gross and Metabolizable

Buy Comfrey Book, Volume 1
Comfrey Book, Vol 1: Botany of Comfrey- page 1 pdf
Comfrey Book, Vol 1: History of Comfrey- page 1 pdf
Comfrey Book, Vol 1: Garden Uses- page 1 pdf
Comfrey Book, Vol 1: Table of Contents (medium length)
Comfrey Book, Vol 1: Table of Contents pdf (complete)

Comfrey Research, Symphytum
Buy Comfrey Book, Volume 2
Comfrey Book, Vol 2: Cultivation of Comfrey- page 1 pdf
Comfrey Book, Vol 2: Livestock and Pets- page 1 pdf
Comfrey Book, Vol 2: Comfrey as Medicine- page 1 pdf
Comfrey Book, Vol 2: Table of Contents pdf (complete)


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